- Flour may be stale, or incorrectly measured.
- Cake did not bake long enough, or oven was opened before center was firmly set.
- Oven temperature out of regulation.
Cake is flat and insufficiently risen:
- Pan used was too large for amount of batter.
- Not enough leavening or leavening was stale.
- Wrong oven temperature.
Cake has a coarse-grained texture:
- All-purpose flour used; use cake flour.
- Check carefully the measurements of all ingredients; possible error in proportions of ingredients used.
- Excess leavening or too many egg yolks.
- Oven temperature too low.
- Ingredients not mixed together smoothly enough.
- Sugar is not fine enough.
Cake is too soft and falls apart:
- Excessive sugar, leavening, shortening; check measurements.
- Not enough eggs or stale eggs.
- Oven temperature too low; or cake removed from pan before cooled.
Cake pulls away from the sides of cake pan:
- Ingredients not at room temperature when combined. (This is particularly important for egg whites and liquids which should be at room temperature, not cold.)
- Ingredients improperly mixed together.
- Too much liquid used; check measurements of ingredients.
- Oven temperature wrong; probably baked too long for temperature used.
- Insufficient amount of batter for size of pan; measure size of pans.
Cake is too heavy:
- Excessive amounts of sugar, flour or fat; check amount specified against amount used.
- Oven temperature wrong-probably too hot.
- Too much mixing of batter; air bubbles may have broken down in over mixing.
- If egg whites used, may not have been gently combined with other ingredients.